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History of the Baloch People

Posted by Mir Iqbal Mugheri on November 3, 2012 at 8:05 AM

The Baloch people are an ethnic group that are mainly settled in the Balochistan areas of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The word Baloch representing the nation as a whole; while the word Balochi represents the language itself alone.


Etymology

 Different researchers have analysed the name Baloch (Balochi : بلوچ ) or Baluch in different ways. Some says it means "Plume of Cock", based on references from Balochistan by Firdausi in which he stated that the Baloch, who fought in Ventures of Kai Khosrow, had worn cloaks with linings and a plumed turban. Others say that it means "mobile". A third group says it is a modified form of "Baloot", a Persian word which means "Desert Resider".Some says Baloch is originatet from word "Balwas" which is mountain range in Persia. An English researcher says that Baloch is a modified form of "Barlooch", which means "Desert Fighter." There are few mythologies about the origin of Baloch. Some claim they descendant from Aleppo (Syria) region, some claims them to be of Arab origin but the most widely research and claims are that Baloch, like the Kurds, are of Iranian race who were living in the northern part of Iranian city called Mazandaran, now province of Iran.


Balochistan

 The word Balochistan is a combination of "Baloch" (a tribe) and "Stan" (living place), so Balochistan means Homeland of Baloch Nation. All Baloch tribes migrated from Sistan to Makran then to Balochistan (also known by East Balochistan) then on the basis of different reasons they migrated, and spread throughout the Sub-continent. Balochistan is the region of the Iranian Plateau and South Asia where Baloch live.


Baloch ancestryAccording to the Balochi narration, they are Quraishi Arabs, generation of Hazrat Ameer Hamza. When Yazeed, 2nd Caliph of Umvi Caliphate, Ejected Hazrat Imam Hussain, at that time Balochs living in Aleppo, a region in Syria also called Halab in Arabic, were confederates of Imam Hussain (A.S) against Yazeed . Yazeed Oppressed Balochs ( Then known by Balushi or Bailoos ) so they left Aleppo and migrated away . During their migration one tribe separated and moved towards the northern Egypt.

شکر الحمد گزاران ملک تھيں

.يگ وت کھوشتی مہ ملکا ، اے جھان خان گل ايں

ما مريدوں يا علی ، اے دين ايمان پشتيں

حمزہ اولاد بلوچی ، ہوب درگاہ گر دين

کل بلا بھمپور نياما ، شہر سيستان مريض ا ز حلبا پھاز کھايوں ، گوں يزيداں جھيڑويں

( Domki Epics )

In history " Koosh and Baloosh " have been described together and the same way, wrote the Arabic writers that they are same . Firdausi also narrates their same culture, and same Commander in the following epics of Shahnama:

سپاہی زگردان کوچ و بلوچ

سگاليدہ جنگيدہ مانند غوچ

کے در جہان ديد ايشان نہ ديد

نہ آہن يک انگشت نامد پديد

سپہدار شان اشکش تيز ہش

کہ باراۓ دل بود دبا مغز ہوش

در فش بياوردہ پيکر پلنگ

ہمی از در فشش بيا رند چنگ

( By: Firdausi )

It is obvious from above epics that Baluch and Kooch(Kurds), used to fight in the same way, under same commander and under the same Flag, showing a Leopard image (Commonly sign of avenge), according to Baluchi proverb " if stone can liquefy then a Baluch is not Avenger " because avenging is their instinct.

According to Arabic writers:

Kuchs and Baluchs are same by ancestry.

They speak their Languages, different from Persian.

During the age of Arabic Conquerors, Kuchs and Baluchs lived together and belonged to same Genealogy however, they spoke different languages .

Similarly Historians claim, Language can not be the identifier of Genealogy.

In about 680, they migrated towards Kerman in Iran and stayed there for a while with peace.

It is found from the ancient Baluchi epics that there were 44 branches of Baluchs at that time . Based upon the ancient Baluchi poetry, they migrated from Karman when Emperor of Karman pressurised them to give him 44 girls from each tribe.the emperor of karman wanted to make baloch in their control, that,s why he demanded for girls, which was against the dignity of baloch.

So, the Baluchs sent 44 boys in girls' dress and before the secret opened, they decamped towards Kech and Makran in South-East, and camped near Arabian Sea. After dwelling for a short while, they inhabited the area now called Baluchistan (Eastern Baluchistan). The Emperor came back the boys and chased the Baluchs towards Kech and Makran, where he was retreated by Baluchs.

Baluchi epics relating to Baluch Ancestry,are of about 11th or 12th century that is the time of immigration from Sistan to Makran. In these epics 44 elementary branches (In some Baluchi epics 26) of Baluchs have been adverted. Some of those retained their Tribal names such as: Magsi,Mazari, Hooth, SAJWANI,Gorgage, Kalmati, Jamali, Nutkani, Malghani, Gashkori, Korai, Rakhshani, Kulachi, Rind, Qaisrani, Dareshak, Gabol, Gurmani, Khushk, Buledi, Domki, Lund, Lashari, Khosa, Jatoi, Gopang, Khurd, Dashti, Jiskani, Mirali, Leghari, Chandio.

These Baloch tribes adopted their names either from an "Abode" from where they immigrated or characterised by neighbourhood as a denotation.

For example, Qatna after Qatna in Syria Magsi after Magas, a valley in Makran, Dashti after Dasht a region in Makran, Khushk and Buledi after Khushak Buleda, a valley in Iran, Muhammad Hassani after the name (Hassan Khan), Domki after Domak, a river in Iran where they used to live. Gashkori after Gash river in Iran which irrigates Khushak Bulaida Valley. While Doodai after (Doda Khan), Jatoi (Jatto, daughter of Mir Jalal Khan), Mirali (Mir Khan), Ahmadani (Ahmad Khan), Sherhanzaee (Zinadini), Umrani (Umer Khan). Zirkani Baloch are also very vast tribe of Baloch. They belong to ZARK Khan Baloch.

Similarly, Mazari is a Balochi word meaning Lion, Khosa(Balouchi) "The Robber/Rsident of Mountain", Leghari(Baluchi)"Foul or Dirty/ Cleaner of dirt" Hoot (Balouchi) Brave, Gabol (Persian) Aggressor or Combatant, Bozdar (Persian ) Goat Keepers, also claimed to be derived from " Bordar " which means "Horse Bestrider" Dareshak (Persian) Brawn.Nizamani are also baloch, who are given name nizamani because of the name of an elder Sakhi Nizam.who was not only a great saint but also a mystic sufi poet of his time. His grave is in Dera Ghazi Khan in Southern Province of Punjab Pakistan.(( Bilwani)) is also a baloch tribe which speaks saraiki language.in the same way ((bughlani)) is the derived tribe from leghari tribe.they also speaks saraiki Nutkani is a famous baloch trible.they belong to Nutkani khan.--

 

References

 

  • Firdausi

 





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