Mugheri (or Mughery, Mughairi; Arabic: المغیری ) are social tribe descended from Arabs, but in Pakistan they are considered to be Baloch. As some Sindhi castes have been considered or merged in Baloch tribes, similarly Mugheri are included in the Baloch tribe so their minority could come in the majority. Mugheri are descended from Arab Field Marshal Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim, who was appointed as Field Marshal for Sindh by his elder brother and famous Governor of Sindh in Abbasid Caliphate named Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim. He was appointed as Governor of Sind in 800 AD (184 Hijri) by Caliph Haroon-ur-Rashid (786-809). Governor Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim governed Sind for the longest period of nine years and his son Bashar Bin Daud Bin Hatim became next successor Governor of Sind during the caliphate of Mamoon-ur-Rashid. The Mughera tribe was at the climax because they ran their business, trade, affairs and matters effectively and were wealthy under the Abbasid Caliphate.
Famous Researchers and Scholars:
1. KM Burriro : According to this researcher Mugheri are directly descended from Mir Ali second son of Jalal Khan who is ancestor of Baloch. He further says in Burdi tribe there was Hajija Family in which Mugher Khan and Buland Khan were two brothers so Mugheri are descended from Mugher Khan who had three sons Rozi,Khushal and Hassan, while Rozi had four sons namely Nazar,Feroz,Jaghir and Dighar.
2. Mansel Longworth Dames: One of the well known Researcher on Baloch tribe an English officer Mansel Longworth Dames (1850–1922) who was a scholar of oriental and Portuguese languages. His research work still could not be reject by the Baloch Scholars and Researchers but they have made it as a source for their research. Mansel Longworth Dames in his book The Baloch Races did not mention the Mugheri in the Burdi tribe but he mentioned it as 17th sub-caste of Magsi tribe on unknown basis.
3. Shaikh Sadique Ali Ansari: A Researcher and Scholar write in one of his book The Musalman Races about the Burdi (Buledi) tribe that who are descendant of Mir Ali the second son of Jalal Khan. Mir Ali had two sons: Zendi Khan and Murad Khan, while Zendi had two sons Sundar and Haji. All Burdi (Buledi) are descendant of Sundar and Haji Khan or in other words Burdi are descendant of Zendi. He further added that Mugheri are descendant of Haji Khan (Hajija) or in other words they are septs of Burdi tribe.
4. Rai Bahadur Lala Hetoram: In 1907 the first Historian of Baluchistan Lala Hetoram in his book Tareekh-e-Baluchistan did not consider and mention Mugheri in any Baloch tribes and even he did not consider this caste in Burdi or Magsi tribe. According to this research Mugheri is not clan of Baloch.
5. Justice(R) Khuda Bux Marri: The research work of Mansel Longworth Dames and his combined English poetry is translated by Justice(R) Khuda Bux Marri, who wrote a book entitled “Baluchistan Tareekh Ji Aaeen” in the last of this book he made an index of Baloch tribes in which he did not mention Mugheri in Burdi(Buledi) tribe but he considered it as clan of Magsi.
6. M.K Pikolin: He was an English Researcher and Scholar who also considered Mugheri as a clan of Magsi as mentioned in his book.
7. Ayaz Bhagat : A well known Researcher on Castes living in Sindh Pakistan. Ayaz Bhagat after long research through history says Mugheri is not Baloch because Rai Bahadur Lala Hetoraam who was local person and first Historian of Baluchistan did not include Mugheri in any Baloch tribe. He further says Mugheri are descended from Arab Warrior Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim who came in Sindh in 800AD along his delegation.
On the basis of these Scholars and researchers it is cleared that Mugheri are not Baloch that’s why Lala Hoat Ram did not mention it in Baloch tribe but Shaikh Sadique on what basis considered it in Burdi(Buledi) tribe. Mansel Longworth Dames, M.K Pikolin and Justice(R) Khuda Bux Marri considered Mugheri as sub-caste of Magsi which is actually a Sindhi tribe. These Scholars even did not explain anything that when Mugheri became part of the Magsi. On the basis of these realities it is proved that Mugheri are not Baloch.
After research I have concluded that Mugheri are not clan of Baloch or Rajput or Soomra or Kalhoro or Channa or Bhatti or Machi or Muhani or Jat but Mugheri are actually Arabs and they are descendants of Sipah Saalar Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim. On this basis they call themselves Mugheri (i.e.; Descendant of Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim). The Caliph Haroon Rasheed, who remained famous caliph in Abbasid caliphate in his caliphate Sindhi were fighting for their freedom and Arab tribes who were inhabitants of Sind specially Yemeni and Hejazi were great opponents of each other. For controlling the critical situations of Sind in 184Hijri (800AD) Caliph Harun-al-Rashid appointed Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim as Governor of Sind.
Arrival of Mughera in Sind:
The Governor Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim instead of coming himself to Sind he appointed his brother Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim as Nawab(Naib) and send him with delegation to Sind for controlling the critical situations of Sind. As the conditions of Sind were critical, one side there was war of detention of Sindhi people and on other side two Arab tribes were opponents of each other. When Mughera Bin Yazid Bin hatim reached Mansura the doors of city were closed by Nazadya tribe, and put one condition for Mughera that he wouldn’t take revenge from nazadya so they would leave the city.
Death of Mughera:
According to the book” History of Yaqoubi” when Mughera entered in the city there was a huge crowd of nazadya who fought with Mughera and hewas killed in that war. Though in other books of history it is found that when Mughera reached the Mansura he was defeated over there and he got shelter in mountain area. He told the whole story to to his brother Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim who then came to Sind and controlled the situations but before his arrival to Sind Mughera was killed. Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim remained ruler of Sind for Nine years. Those Arab warriors and tribes who came along with Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim to Sind they ascribed their name with him after his death as "Mugheri".
Rule of Mughera’s tribe:
According to Scholar and writer Qazi Athar Mubarkapori that Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim brother of Mughera who governed Sind for Nine years during his tenure of Nine years government and his son Bashar Bin Daud Bin Hatim nephew of Mughera became next successor Governor of Sindh during 830’s.They settled their many people who then became the inhabitants of Sind. The man who governed Sind (then covering major portion of present day Pakistan) for the longest period was Daud bin Yazid bin Hatim who died in 821 A.D. During the caliphate of Mamoon-ur-Rashid, Sind Governor Bashar Ibn-e-Daud had revolted and withheld the payment of revenues, but the revolt was quelled judiciously. It may be of interest to note that the postal and intelligence services of Sind were directly controlled by the Caliphs. As Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim Muhalab was killed in Sind thus people of this tribe affliated their names with Mughera and his descendant who remained in Northern Sind called themselves with their Leader’s name as Mugheri.
Climax of Mughera’s tribe
Qazi Athar Mubarkapori in his book “Khilafat-e-Abbasi Aen Hindustan” writes that in Abbasid Caliphate Mughera's Tribe was at the climax. They ran their business, affairs and matters in a fabulous way and from this tribe most of people were considered as riches in Abbasid caliphate. As compare to other Islamic countries in Sind Muhalab tribe of Mughera was rich, remained rulers and their population became in majority.
Settlement of Mughera’s tribe in Sind:
The descendant of Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim Muhalab who remained in Northern Sind called themselves with their Leader’s name as Mugheri. The huge population of Mugheri lives in Bhag Nari Baluchistan,Jacobabad, Larkana, Qambar, Shahdadkot, Warah, Waggan, Nasirabad, some had settled in Khairpur Mirs District, and Nawab Shah and others live nearby Baluchistan some lives in Punjab.
The tribe of Mughera Bin Yazid Bin Hatim is now successfully included in Baloch tribe, they call themselves as Mugheri Baloch. In Sind they generally speak Balochi and Sindhi.
Chief of Mugheri tribe:
After the fall of great Governors of Sind in Abbasid Caliphate (i.e; Daud Bin Yazid and Bashar Bin Daud) the distinguished personality whose name is found appreciable in near past that is: Late Sardar Aslam Khan Mugheri remained Chairman of District Kachhi (Also Known as District Bolan) of Baluchistan. He was appointed as Chairman by Former Governor & Chief Minister of Baluchistan Nawab Akbar Bugti during his tenure of rule in Baluchistan. Aslam Khan was not only a good friend of Nwab Akbar Bugti but he was also a social,active & brave man and had leadership qualities which inspired Nawab Akbar Bugti who held meeting with him and instead of appointing his close blood relatives, appointed Aslam Khan as Chairman of District Kachhi. Aslam Khan handled & solved various problems of that District. The district Kachhi is administratively subdivided into the tehsils: Bhag,Dhadar,Machh,Sani & Khattan. Aslam Khan is S/O Sardar Sherdil Khan & brother of Sardar Jalal Khan Mugheeri. Recently Sardar Ayub Khan Mugheri S/O Sardar Jalal Khan Mugher is Chief of Mugheri Tribe lives in Bhagh. Aslam Khan due to his contributions is considered as Great Lion of Mugheri tribe.
Governors of Sind Daud Bin Yazid Bin Hatim brother of Mughera and his son Bashar Bin Daud in Abbasid Caliphate controlled the critical situations of Sind; they made increments in trade and commerce and thus played a vital role in the development of Sind. Recently the great number of people of this tribe have been developed and working hard in various fields at national and international level few of them are :
1.Gul Sher Mugheri Son of Mohammad Nawaz Mugheri of Village Qadir Bux Mugheri District Kambar-Shahdadkot a volunteer and hard working person who remained security officer of Prime Minister of Pakistan late Mohtarama Benazir Bhutto in 1980s. He is serving as senior officer in Federal Investigation Agency of Pakistan since 1988.He has given education, electricity, constructions of roads and drainage system etc facilities to people of village. The number of youngsters has been working in various departments due to his struggles.
2. Roshan Ali Mugheri son of Deedar Ali Mugheri whose name is appreciable for helping and encouraging lot of youngsters and their parents in the field of education; He is Assistant professor at Cadet College Petaro .He has acquired various higher degrees like; M.A English, B.Ed, MEd, M.Phil(English language and teaching ELT ),PhD(ELT)cont. and awards and certificates. He contributed society with his publications like;(i) “Study of effects of working mothers on the development of children in Pakistan” which was published in International Journal of Humanities and social science USA Vol:02 11June12(ii) “Importance of reading graduate level in Sind” organized by HEC Pakistan(iii) “Innovative Pedagogy & assessment practices” published in Agha Khan KU. Sub-Castes: The sub-castes of this tribe are: 1. Bhand 2. Arbani (Derived from Arban Khan)
3. Jaamra (Derived from Jaam Khan) 4. Notkhani (Derived from Noat Khan) 5. Hajija (Derived from Haji Khan) 6. Sathiyani (Derived from Sathi Khan) 7. Ferozani (Derived from Feroz Khan) 8. Kalani (Derived from Kaalan Khan) 9. Sirajani (Derived from Siraj Khan) 10. Bambrani 11. Latifani (Derived from Latif ) 12. Digarani (Derived from Digaar) 13. Rehanzai 14. Madozai 15. Wahdadani (Derived from Wahadad) 16. Khaor 17. Rustamani (Derived from Rustam Khan) 18. Nazarani (Derived from Nazar) 19.Kheerani 20. Somarani (Derived from Somar)
21. Rolyani 22. Jaghirani (Derived from Jaaghir)
23. Nariwal (Derived from Bhag Nari) 24. Fazulzai (Derived from Fazal of Bhag)
- The Baloch Race by Mansel Longworth Dames
- The Musalaman Races by Shaikh Sadik Ali Ansari
- History of Baluchistan(Sindhi) by Lala Hoat Ram
- Baluchistan In the Context of History(Sindhi) by Justice(R)Khuda Bux Muree
- The Castes,Tribes & Nations Living in Sindh(Sindhi) by Ayaz Bhaghat
- Abbasid Caliphate & Hindustan(Sindhi) by Qazi Athar
- Encyclopedia of Castes(Sindhi) by KM Burriro
NOTE: This History is also available in Urdu Click to View/ Download: Here
- To read this article in Wikipedia Encyclopedia Click Here